Why are the elderly prone to UTIs? How do you tell if an elderly person has a UTI? Urinary tract infection (UTI) symptoms in the elderly can be uncomfortable and inconvenient, not to mention they can cause other health problems. Luckily, there are simple ways to spot a UTI and several ways to treat them.
Keep reading for more about urinary tract infections in the elderly, including what foods are good for UTIs and what foods to avoid with a UTI.
Why Are the Elderly Prone to UTIs?
UTIs occur when bacteria enters the bladder and supporting structures (i.e. the urethra or kidneys). While it may seem like a small problem at first, a UTI can lead to bigger problems. Untreated, a UTI can lead to:
- Acute or chronic kidney infections
- Organ damage
- Kidney failure
Seniors are particularly vulnerable to UTIs for a couple reasons. One main reason may be because the immune system of an older adult can weaken over time. Additionally, elderly people with the following conditions may have an increased risk for UTIs:
- Abnormal urinary tract or urinary function
- Drug resistance (antibiotic overuse)
- Enlarged prostate
- Genetic predisposition or family history
- History of UTIs
- Kidney stones
- Multiple sexual partners
- Urine retention
- Weak bladder or pelvic floor muscles
Surgeries, illness, or injury can also open the door for bacteria to get in the body and, consequently, bladder. If a urinary catheter is used, it can introduce bacteria into the body as well. Disability or immobility may also increase the risk of bacterial infection for older adults.
Additionally, older women are more prone to UTIs, thanks to biological reasons. The urethra in a female body is shorter than in a male body, meaning the trip bacteria take to the bladder is shorter, too. A shift in the balance of good bacteria and bad bacteria that can occur during menopause, along with intense hormone shifts, may also be to blame.
UTI Symptoms In The Elderly
The more common symptoms of UTIs in the elderly include:
- Blood in the urine (typically red, bright pink, or cola-colored)
- Burning or stinging sensation while urinating
- Constant urge or persistent need to urinate
- Dark or cloudy urine
- Fever (usually low-grade)
- Frequent urination, or passing small amounts of urine frequently
- Foul-smelling urine
- Kidney or bladder stones
- Night sweats
- Pain during intercourse or while urinating
- Pelvic pain
- Pressure, pain, or cramping in the lower abdomen
- Shaking or chills
- Urgent need to urinate
Other symptoms may be harder to spot. Sometimes no symptoms are reported or noticed at all even though bacteria is present in the urine (a condition called asymptomatic bacteriuria). Some symptoms that may not be as obvious include:
- Aggravation or agitation
- Behavioral changes (i.e. confusion, hallucinations, delirium)
- Dizziness, fainting, or falling
- Poor motor function (i.e. loss of coordination)
It’s important to note that UTIs share many symptoms with another bladder condition called interstitial cystitis. While both may cause pelvic pain or discomfort, interstitial cystitis is considered a more chronic condition and is part of a collection of diseases known by the name of painful bladder syndrome.
In any case, if you are experiencing symptoms, it’s important to connect with your doctor or a urologist before the condition gets worse. The longer you wait while bacteria irritates your bladder, the worse the infection may be.
How to Treat UTI Symptoms
So, how do you treat a UTI once you know you have one? How do you prevent a UTI if you’ve had recurring ones? Since UTIs have multiple comorbidities and a higher mortality rate in the elderly, this condition needs to be not only addressed but taken seriously.
When diagnosed with a UTI, doctors generally suggest first receiving the standard of care. This essentially means running a few evidence-based tests on your urine, often before and after specific treatments (i.e. antibiotics) to see how your body responds. Upon re-examination, or in the case of recurring UTIs, your healthcare team may suggest the following approaches.
Hygiene Tips & Tricks for Listening to Your Body
For women, wiping from front to back helps to prevent bacteria from entering the urethra or bladder. Also, urinating after intercourse can help to wash unfamiliar bacteria away. Showers may also be more effective than baths at rinsing bacteria from the body.
The bladder also sends signals that indicate fullness, and it is important to listen to the body’s cues. Don’t wait too long to urinate when your bladder feels full. Over time, waiting too long to urinate can stretch the bladder.
Foods to Eat (and What to Avoid)
Some foods or drinks can aggravate an infected bladder. It may be wise to avoid the following foods and beverages if your focus is to alleviate symptoms:
- Acidic fruits (i.e. oranges, lemons)
- Caffeinated and citrus-flavored sodas (i.e. orange, lemon-lime)
- Salty foods (cause water retention)
- Spicy foods
Cranberry juice and cranberry juice supplements are often recommended to help heal from a bladder infection. This is because cranberries contain special compounds that might help treat or prevent UTIs, balance gut and urinary tract bacteria,and reduce inflammation. Studies have suggested that older adults in nursing homes may particularly benefit from ingesting cranberry products.
Drinking plenty of water is also an excellent choice if you are dealing with a UTI. Fluids can help to flush out the bad bacteria and support your body’s healing process. Additionally, fruits and vegetables help provide the body with vitamin C, speeding along treatment (just remember to avoid anything too citrusy or acidic).
Tips for Nursing Homes
For the elderly living in nursing homes, set reminders (i.e. timer, alarm) for emptying the bladder. This practice can help memory-impaired seniors urinate independently and on a schedule instead of having to use incontinence products.
When possible, encourage wearing cotton underwear, which is more breathable than alternatives. If incontinence is an issue, be sure to change soiled adult briefs as soon as possible.
In Summary on UTI Symptoms in Older Adults
While elderly people are more prone to UTIs, there are luckily many options for prevention and treatment. From hygiene practices to diet, the choices you make each day can help prevent a UTI from happening. If you have a UTI, avoiding certain foods and starting antibiotics can also help ease symptoms.
Alpay Y, Aykin N, Korkmaz P, Gulduren HM, Caglan FC. Urinary tract infections in the geriatric patients. Pak J Med Sci. 2018;34(1):67-72.
Artero EA, Nuñez AC, Bravo MG, Calvo OC, Garcia MB, et al. Urinary infection in the elderly. Rev Clin Esp (Barc). 2019;219(4):189-193.
Bhide A, Tailor V, Khullar V. Interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome and recurrent urinary tract infection and the potential role of the urinary microbiome. Post Reprod Health. 2020;26(2):87-90.
British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy and Oxford University Press. Out of hospital management of UTIS in elderly patients. JAC Antimicrob Resist. 2020;2(1):dlaa016.
Givler DN, Givler A. Asymptomatic Bacteriuria. StatPearls. Published July 2022.
Kakde P, Redkar NN, Yelale A. Urinary Tract Infection in Elderly: Clinical Profile and Outcome. J Assoc Physicians India. 2018;66(6):14-17.
Kubala J. Does Cranberry Juice Help Treat UTIs? Myth vs. Science. Healthline. Published October 2021. https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/cranberry-juice-uti.
Mayo Clinic Staff. Interstitial cystitis. Mayo Clinic. Published September 2021. https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/interstitial-cystitis/symptoms-causes/syc-20354357.
Newman L. Tips for Keeping Your Urinary System Healthy. Verywell Health. Published August 2022. https://www.verywellhealth.com/tips-for-keeping-your-urinary-system-healthy-3300090.
Rodriguez D. Foods You Shouldn’t Eat When Treating a UTI. Everydayhealth.com. Published December 2017.
Rodriguez-Mañas L. Urinary tract infections in the elderly: a review of disease characteristics and current treatment options. Drug Context. 2020;9:2020-4-13.
Solitto M. UTI in the Elderly: Signs, Symptoms and Treatments. Aging Care. Published November 2021. https://www.agingcare.com/articles/urinary-tract-infections-elderly-146026.htm.
Wong C. How a Urinary Tract Infection Is Treated. Verywell Health. Published June 2022. https://www.verywellhealth.com/urinary-tract-infections-treatments-89319.